RHEL / CentOS 7 and Windows Dual Boot Legacy Mode

Here is some points to configure to make dual boot with Windows along with RHEL / CentOS 7.

  1. First Install Windows 7/8/8.1.
  2. Install RHEL/CentOS 7 with manual partition. Do not erase any existing NTFS, FAT, FAT32 Partitions.
  3. After finish Installation, reboot the machine.
  4. Notice, you can’t see the grub entry for Windows OS.
  5. Login to RHEL/CentOS 7.
  6. Become Administrator of System or Login as ROOT user.
  7. Check the boot partition of Windows, by using “fdisk -l” command and remember it.
  8. Find out the UUID of Windows boot partition and Copy it.
  9. append following entry to  “/etc/grub.d/41_custom” file.

    cat <<EOF
    menuentry “Windows” {
    insmod part_msdos
    insmod ntfs
    set root=’hd0,msdos1′
    search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root <UUID OF WINDOWS BOOT PARTITION>
    chainloader +1

  10. Make “/boot/grub2/grub.conf” file  using “grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.conf” command.
  11. Reboot the Machine
  12. You can see the Windows Entry in grub boot menu.

File(s) Synchronize from Remote System in RHEL/CentOS

Rsync (Remote Sync) is a most commonly used command for copying and synchronizing files and directories remotely as well as locally in Linux/Unix systems. With the help of rsync command you can copy and synchronize your data remotely and locally across directories, across disks and networks, perform data backups and mirroring between two Linux machines.

Some advantages and features of Rsync command

  • It efficiently copies and sync files to or from a remote system.
  • Supports copying links, devices, owners, groups and permissions.
  • It’s faster than scp (Secure Copy) because rsync uses remote-update protocol which allows to transfer just the differences between two sets of files. First time, it copies the whole content of a file or a directory from source to destination but from next time, it copies only the changed blocks and bytes to the destination.
  • Rsync consumes less bandwidth as it uses compression and decompression method while sending and receiving data both ends.

Basic syntax of rsync command

# rsync options source destination

Some common options used with rsync commands

  1. -v : verbose
  2. -r : copies data recursively (but don’t preserve timestamps and permission while transferring data
  3. -a : archive mode, archive mode allows copying files recursively and it also preserves symbolic links, file permissions, user & group ownerships and timestamps
  4. -z : compress file data
  5. -h : human-readable, output numbers in a human-readable format

Installing rsync in RHEL/CentOS

# yum install rsync

Copy/Sync a File on a Local Computer
This following command will sync a single file on a local machine from one location to another location. Here in this example, a file name backup.tar needs to be copied or synced to /tmp/backups/ folder.

# rsync -z -v -h backup.tar /tmp/backups/

In above example, you can see that if the destination is not already exists rsync will create a directory automatically for destination.

Copy/Sync a Directory on Local Computer
The following command will transfer or sync all the files of from one directory to a different directory in the same machine. Here in this example, /root/rpms contains some rpm package files and you want that directory to be copied inside /tmp/backups/ folder.

# rsync -a -v -z -h /root/rpms /tmp/backups/

Copy a Directory from Local Server to a Remote Server
This command will sync a directory from a local machine to a remote machine. For example: There is a folder in your local computer “dir” which contains some RPM packages and you want that local directory’s content send to a remote server, you can use following command.

# rsync -a -v -z dir/ root@
root@'s password:

Copy/Sync a Remote Directory to a Local Machine
This command will help you sync a remote directory to a local directory. Here in this example, a directory /home/user/dir which is on a remote server is being copied in your local computer in /tmp/dir.

#rsync -avzh root@ /tmp/dir
root@'s password:

नेपाल सरकारको प्रमुख निकाय प्रधानमन्त्री तथा मन्त्रिपरिषद्को कार्यालयका कर्मचारीहरु सचिव एवं सह सचिवहरु मात्रै ??

नेपाल सरकारको प्रमुख निकाय प्रधानमन्त्री तथा मन्त्रिपरिषद्को कार्यालयको वेबसाइट अनुसार उक्त कार्यालयमा काम गर्ने कर्मचारीहरुको विवरणमा सचिव तथा सह सचिवहरु मात्रै नामावली रहेको पाइएको छ । Continue reading “नेपाल सरकारको प्रमुख निकाय प्रधानमन्त्री तथा मन्त्रिपरिषद्को कार्यालयका कर्मचारीहरु सचिव एवं सह सचिवहरु मात्रै ??”

[FIXED] नेपाल सरकारको एउटा अर्को निकायको वेबसाइटको दुर्दशा

[UPDATE 2014-07-18] – This issue has been fixed.

नेपाल सरकारका मातहत निकायका वेबसाइटहरुको दुर्दशा शिर्षकमा केही दिन अघि नै एउटा लेख प्रकाशित भै सकेको छ । यसै क्रममा नेपाल सरकारको एउटा अर्को निकायको वेबसाइटको दुर्दशा यहाँ प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ, त्यो निकाय हो संस्कृति, पर्यटन तथा नागरिक उड्डयन मन्त्रालयContinue reading “[FIXED] नेपाल सरकारको एउटा अर्को निकायको वेबसाइटको दुर्दशा”

System Configuration for RHEL/CentOS 7

System Configuration for RHEL/CentOS7

Changing Default Runlevel

create a soft-links named “default.target” under “/etc/systemd/system” using source path “/lib/systemd/system/<target name>.target For example, changing runlevel into 3.

# ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/runlevel3.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target


# systemctl set-default runlevel3.target

Continue reading “System Configuration for RHEL/CentOS 7”

नेपाल सरकारका मातहत निकायका वेबसाइटहरुको दुर्दशा

नेपाल सरकारले आफ्ना काम कारवाहीहरु सम्पादन गर्दा कम कागजको प्रयोग गरेर गर्ने एउटा सुखद शुरुवात प्रधानमन्त्री तथा मन्त्रिपरिषद्को कार्यालयबाट गरेको छ । यसै गरी सरकारी निकायहरुले सेवाग्राहीहरुलाई आफ्नो कार्यालयको परिचय तथा कार्यालय मार्फत प्रवाह हुने सेवाहरु तथा अन्य कुराहरुको जानकारी प्रदान गर्न वेबसाइटहरु समेत सञ्चालनमा ल्याएका छन् । Continue reading “नेपाल सरकारका मातहत निकायका वेबसाइटहरुको दुर्दशा”